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Glass recycling part 1

Glass recycling is the collection and recycling of used glass and is considered as the archetype of the modern recycling economy. The collection, processing and recycling of waste glass has been prevalent since the seventies in Germany.

Collection in used glass recycling containers

Initially, used glass is collected in the so-called used glass recycling containers in the bring-it-yourself system. As a rule of thumb in Germany, it is separated according to colours: white, green and brown. Special colourations such as blue or red glass are allocated to the green glass section. A strict colour separation is important for the subsequent recycling process. Small quantities of coloured glass cause an unwanted coloration in the white glass melting process and can vice versa lead to a lot of white glass with regards to the decolourization of coloured glass. Such products may then no longer be used, which is why particular attention to the correct separation is paid.

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Glass – composition and properties

The components of glass

Glass is a high-quality, extraordinary and versatile material that possesses amazing properties. 

Glass is a material comprised of natural and nature-identical raw materials. Various substances such as soda (sodium carbonate), potash (potassium carbonate), limestone (calcium carbonate) and boron oxides are added to the main component of quartz sand (silicon dioxide). Silica, sodium oxide and calcium oxide are necessary for solidification and melting, as well as for corrosion protection.

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Crystal balls and Occultism

Crystal balls and Occultism  (= the study of hidden things, Secret Sciences) are two concepts that arewith each other formany centuries. As traditional requisite for Occultism crystal balls among other things have long been used for clairvoyance. While there is no scientific basis for the view of events the fascination of the mysterious crystal balls is unbroken.

So it should work best

Full moon is  supposedly the best time for clairvoyance. Run lukewarm water on the crystal ball for 3 minutes (for cleansing) and then expose it to the full moon irradiation the whole night. According to the clairvoyant, it is possible to achieve the clearest and best result.

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Fashion jewellery and glass

Glass has been used for many centuries in the production of fashion jewellery. Fashion jewellery is – as the word suggests – jewellery that matches the latest fashion trends and unlike real jewellery is much cheaper. The earliest form of fashion jewellery was in ancient Egypt in the style of reconstituted beads. Fashion jewellery is also known by other terms: Rhinestones and rhinestone jewellery can also be classed as fashion jewellery.

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Reflectors in traffic engineering

Reflectors in traffic engineering

We encounter reflectors in many different ways in our daily lives, including in the important traffic engineering sector. Retroreflectors are safety devices which, particularly in the dark, reflect incident light back to the light source. The special optical, chemical and mechanical properties of glass ensure that this material finds many uses in the challenging traffic engineering sector. Its hardness and heat resistance are enough to ensure that it is often preferred to plastics. 

Requirements for good reflective properties

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The history of the glass industry in Jablonec and Neugablonz

A fascinating city is formed

The historical Czech town of Jablonec nad Nisou (German: Gablonz an der Neiße) was first mentioned in the 14th century. The glass industry in the town however had its origins a couple of centuries later. We can assume that the first glass professionals settled in the area in the 16th century. Above all, the existing rich resources that are necessary for the production of glass, were a major factor in the settlement.

Destruction and new beginnings

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From idea to finished product from glass (Part 2)

…. Continuation of  From idea to finished product from glass Part 1

The production process of the pressed glass article begins

The mould is built in to the press. Now the actual production process begins. It can be sweaty work at the furnace, with temperatures reaching up to 1300 degrees. According to the shape and size of the material of the pressed glass product, the appropriate raw glass rods must be selected. There are glass rods with different diameters. The bigger the glass article, the thicker the glass rods. The diameter of the glass rods can be as high as 44 mm. Depending on the type of glass or even the colour of glass, there are different requirements to be considered when processing. The glass rods are then heated in the oven. As soon as the glass rod is soft and is suitable for the pressing operation, it can be kept in the open press. The press closes and presses the product accordingly. Throughout this process, the mould is permanently heated by flame so that you have an appropriate temperature necessary for the successful finalisation of the product. During the pressing process, there can be excess glass from the edge of the article. When the item is then pressed, the connection to the glass rod is broken with a special pair of scissors. The glass rod is then held to the heat for the next pressing operation in the oven. The pressed article is then removed with forceps from the opened mould.

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Glass Fusion

Fusing (Fusion) is a sophisticated technology, in which various pieces of glasses are fused together. The melting temperature is among other things, dependent upon the composition of the glasses which are to be fused together. There is even the possibility of other temperature-dependent items such as metals to merge together with the glass. Glass fusion also works with colored glass powders, frits and fragments.

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The Raw Glass Production Process

In our current blog we describe the manufacture of raw glass (lime soda glass). Normally the following raw materials are used for the glass mixture:

The ingredients change according to the type of glass being made. This list therefore only features the most important components. As soon as the batch is made, the melting begins with 3 different phases:

  • Phase 1 is the preliminary melting phase. This is when the batch is melted and homogenized
  • Phase 2 is refining  (removing gas bubbles).
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