Category Archives: glass

Glass recycling part 1

Glass recycling is the collection and recycling of used glass and is considered as the archetype of the modern recycling economy. The collection, processing and recycling of waste glass has been prevalent since the seventies in Germany.

Collection in used glass recycling containers

Initially, used glass is collected in the so-called used glass recycling containers in the bring-it-yourself system. As a rule of thumb in Germany, it is separated according to colours: white, green and brown. Special colourations such as blue or red glass are allocated to the green glass section. A strict colour separation is important for the subsequent recycling process. Small quantities of coloured glass cause an unwanted coloration in the white glass melting process and can vice versa lead to a lot of white glass with regards to the decolourization of coloured glass. Such products may then no longer be used, which is why particular attention to the correct separation is paid.

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Classification of Glass

By the nature of Genesis

In general you can divide glass into two groups: natural glass and artificial glass. While artificial glass is produced by the melting of several raw materials, natural glass is produced by processes in nature. The best known of such processes has to be the formation of obsidian and pumice. These natural types of glass result from volcanic eruptions of lava. Even a few millennia ago such natural glass was being used by humans for various purposes. Other natural glasses include tektites (meteorite impact) and fulgurites (lightning impact).

By the nature of „chemistry“

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Glass – composition and properties

The components of glass

Glass is a high-quality, extraordinary and versatile material that possesses amazing properties. 

Glass is a material comprised of natural and nature-identical raw materials. Various substances such as soda (sodium carbonate), potash (potassium carbonate), limestone (calcium carbonate) and boron oxides are added to the main component of quartz sand (silicon dioxide). Silica, sodium oxide and calcium oxide are necessary for solidification and melting, as well as for corrosion protection.

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Crystal balls and Occultism

Crystal balls and Occultism  (= the study of hidden things, Secret Sciences) are two concepts that arewith each other formany centuries. As traditional requisite for Occultism crystal balls among other things have long been used for clairvoyance. While there is no scientific basis for the view of events the fascination of the mysterious crystal balls is unbroken.

So it should work best

Full moon is  supposedly the best time for clairvoyance. Run lukewarm water on the crystal ball for 3 minutes (for cleansing) and then expose it to the full moon irradiation the whole night. According to the clairvoyant, it is possible to achieve the clearest and best result.

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Reflectors in traffic engineering

Reflectors in traffic engineering

We encounter reflectors in many different ways in our daily lives, including in the important traffic engineering sector. Retroreflectors are safety devices which, particularly in the dark, reflect incident light back to the light source. The special optical, chemical and mechanical properties of glass ensure that this material finds many uses in the challenging traffic engineering sector. Its hardness and heat resistance are enough to ensure that it is often preferred to plastics. 

Requirements for good reflective properties

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The idea is the beginning for a new glass product (part 1)

The first part of this section deals with implementing an idea right up to the production of a prototype – it creates a new glass product. Regardless of whether it is a glass lens, glass ball or ……..

The idea is the beginning for a new glass product

To start with, there is an idea of us working together with our customers right up to the finished product. The first step is a drawing with all the necessary details like, for example, precise measurements, tolerance specifications, description, etc.. We should also be informed of the intended use or purpose, such as the exact requirements set by the customer for the pressed glass product. These requirements also decide on the type of raw glass needing to be used. There is usually the choice of either soda lime glass or borosilicate glass.

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The Raw Glass Production Process

In our current blog we describe the manufacture of raw glass (lime soda glass). Normally the following raw materials are used for the glass mixture:

The ingredients change according to the type of glass being made. This list therefore only features the most important components. As soon as the batch is made, the melting begins with 3 different phases:

  • Phase 1 is the preliminary melting phase. This is when the batch is melted and homogenized
  • Phase 2 is refining  (removing gas bubbles).
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Glass Lenses

A lens is an optically effective element with two light-refracting surfaces. Of which a surface is usually curved as concave or convex. The most important characteristic of a lens or a so-called lens system is the optical image. The critical size of a lens is the focal length the unit is specified in meters, depending on the intended use etc. Thus the distance from the focal plane or the focal point of the lens is defined. The simplest lenses are optically active at both spherical surfaces (surface sections of a sphere). From a historical perspective it is assumed that the first glass lenses were used in the field of optics. They were used as lenses to correct short sight or long sight. Later, the first binoculars and also microscopes were developed. Materials which are suitable for the production of lenses must be made of transparent materials. In addition to glass are also some plastics suitable, such as Polycarbonate. The name of the lenses is defined by the curvature of their surfaces. Each of these surfaces can be concave, convex or flat (plan). Convex lenses have curved surfaces outwards, concave lenses, however, have inner curved surface. With lenses having a flat surface no curvature is present. A very important characteristic of a lens is the principle of reversal of the light path. The focal length is dependent on the curvature radii of the two lens surfaces. There are many different types of lenses. We want to enumerate only a few at this moment.

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Glass beads – multiple applications

Glass beads play a prominant role in our wide-ranging assortment. Just the variety of possible applications are an indication these days that glass is an important component of daily life. If we look at our assortment, it’s easy to miss the smallest glass beads left in our production sites all over the world. Each one has exactly a 1 mm diameter and we make them in Germany following a traditional process. The scale of these small borosilicate beads can also be expanded – 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm etc. There are several possible applications for these beads. Among other things, they are found in ball bearings, as a mixing ball for insulin, as a ball valve in a dosing pump and in dispensers in the grocery and cosmetics industries, etc. Our outstanding quality and precision is valued around the world.

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